Instruments & Labs

THE LABS

Materials Analysis
This facility is oriented toward multiple-technique characterization of a variety of solid materials with regard to atomic structure; chemical bonding; elemental and chemical composition of surfaces and interfaces; topographic, magnetic and piezoelectric characteristics of surfaces; and thickness and optical constants of thin films. Read more about the Materials Analysis lab.
   
Electron Microscopy
This facility provides instrumentation and expertise to the MIT and general academic community for the performance of top-class electron microscopy and associated procedures. Read more about the Electron Microscopy lab.
   
Nanostructured Materials
This facility is oriented toward multiple-technique characterization of a variety of solid surfaces with regard to atomic structure, surface chemical composition, and chemical bonding characteristics. Read more about the Nanostructured Materials lab.
   

X-ray Diffraction
This facility provides a broad base of analytical x-ray support for researchers needing both powder and single crystal diffractometry capabilities. Read more about the X-ray Diffraction lab.

   

INSTRUMENTS FROM A-Z
Agilent 5100 DVD Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer
Used to quantify the elements in a sample. Typical concentrations of 1-100ppm. Radial or Axial view emission spectrometer. Autosampler.
Contact: Tim McClure    Phone: (617) 258-6470    E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Atomic Force Microscope
Contact: Tim McClure   Phone: (617) 452-4778   E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Nanostructured Materials Lab    or
Contact: Libby Shaw    Phone: (617) 253-5045    E-mail: elshaw@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Back Reflection Laue Diffractometer
This system uses a two-dimensional multiwire detector to collect back-reflection Laue patterns to determine the orientation of large single crystals and thin film single crystal substrates.
Contact: Dr. Charles Settens   Phone: (845) 430-2584   E-mail: settens@mit.EDU
X-ray Lab

Bruker D8 Gadds Multipurpose Diffractometer
The Bruker General Area Detector Diffraction System (GADDS) instrument permits simultaneous collection of diffraction data over a 2theta range as large as 30 degrees and a chi (tilt) range as large as 30 degrees. Combines a Eulerian cradle, which permits many unique tilts and rotations of the sample, with a very fast two-dimensional area detector. This configuration makes this instrument ideal for texture and stress measurements, as well as traditional XRPD and limited SCD and GIXD. A selectable collimator, which conditions the X-ray beam to a spot with a size from 0.5mm to 0.05mm diameter, combined with a motorized x-y stage permits micro-diffraction for multiple select areas of a sample or mapping across a sample's surface. Samples can include thin films on wafers or dense pieces up to 6" in diameter (maximum thickness of 3 mm), powders in top-loaded sample holders or in capillaries, dense pieces up to 60mm x 50mm x 15mm (and maybe even larger). In addition, the GADDS system can collect basic WAXS, SAXS, and GISAXS data by configuring the instrument with a collimator-mounted or detector-mounted beam stop and a helium purged flight tube to reduce air scatter.
Contact: Dr. Charles Settens   Phone: (845) 430-2584    E-mail: settens@mit.edu
X-ray Lab

Bruker D8 High Resolution Diffractometer
Uses a conventional 1.6kW sealed tube copper anode, and the X-rays are reflected off a Gobble mirror to produce a parallel beam. This instrument features a four-bounce Ge (022) incident beam monochromator. This optic produces highly monochromatic X-rays, eliminating all incident wavelengths except Cu K?1 (?=1.540562 Å). The goniometer is a chi-cradle type, with full phi axis rotation and x-y-z translation. Including omega, this gives six positioning axes for the sample (not including the detector axis, 2Theta). Two detectors are mounted on this instrument: a point detector, which offers higher resolution at the cost of speed, and a faster but lower-resolution linear position-sensitive detector. Popular applications include HRXRD, reciprocal space maps (RSM), and XRR.
Contact: Dr. Charles Settens    Phone: (845) 430-2584    E-mail: settens@mit.edu
X-ray Lab

Bruker DXT Stylus Profilometer
Provides high precision surface metrology measurements on a wide variety of substrates using a 2um radius diamond tipped stylus Step height, Roughness or Curvature of your sample can be measured. 2D and 3D Measurement Range: 50 Angstroms to 1mm. Stress measurements.
Contact: Tim McClure    Phone: (617) 258-6470    E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab
 

Bruker Tracer-Iii Sd Portable Xrf Unit
This energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) unit provides rapid qualitative non-destructive elemental analysis. It features a rhodium X-ray source and a silicon-based detector and is capable of identifying most elements heavier than magnesium in three minutes or less with a spectrum from 1-40 keV. Normally it gives qualitative results, e.g. trace element identification and relative comparisons of similar samples. Quantitative analysis is possible but more difficult, because the user must create a set of calibration standards for each element of interest.
Contact: Dr. Charles Settens    Phone: (845) 430-2584    E-mail: settens@mit.edu
X-ray Lab

Computation
Electronic Microscopy Lab

Five basic types of computing needs:

  1. Image digitization
  2. Image simulation
  3. Image processing and analysis
  4. Utilities
  5. Output devices

FEI Helios Nanolab 600 Dual Beam System
Configured to carry out nano-scale characterization and nano-machining on a wide-range of materials from various study areas such as biotechnology, and materials and energy research. This instrument has magnetic immersion electron optics to give 0.9 nm resolution at 15kV. A high brightness field electron emitter can deliver a beam current up to 22 nA and the accelerating voltage from 350V to 30kV. The ion optics produces a resolution of 5.0 nm at 30KV and liquid Gallium emitter delivers 20 nA ion current and the voltage ranging from 0.5 kV to 30kV.
Contact: Dr. Shiahn Chen, Phone: (617) 253-4622 E-mail: schen3j@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

FEI Tecnai Multipurpose TEM
The FEI Tecnai (G2 Spirit TWIN) is a high quality 120 kV multipurpose TEM, providing high resolution and good contrast. The high-resolution TWIN lens allows for imaging at both moderate and high magnification up to 0.36 nm point-to-point resolution & 0.2 nm lattice resolution. The digital TEM combines excellent performance with optimized ease-of-use for high resolution imaging, elemental analysis and mapping.
Contact: Dr. Yong Zhang    Phone: (617) 253-5092    E-mail: yzhang05@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

FEI/Philips XL30 FEG ESEM
A high performance, extremely flexible and well-equipped microscope for general-purpose microscopy, low-vacuum and environmental scanning microscopy (ESEM). It is also equipped with a Peltier stage. Resolution at 30KV is 3.5 nm. The minimum magnification is about 20x.
Contact: Patrick Boisvert    Phone: (617) 253-3317   E-mail: pboisver@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

Filmetrics Reflectometer
Spectroscopic reflectometry is used to determine the thickness and complex index of refraction (n & k) of thin films, by comparing the spectral amplitude and periodicity of light reflected at normal incidence from a thin film surface with light reflected from a known reference sample, and fitting the result to a mathematical model based upon proposed values for the parameters thickness, n and k.

CMSE's reflectometer has been optimized to enhance the spectral yield in the near-IR, with a consequent spectral range from 480 to 1700 nm. The measurable film thickness range is from about 100 nm to 25 µm, and the accuracy is +/-10 Å or 0.4%, whichever is larger.

The reflectometer has a large-sample stage with a spot size on the order of 1 mm.
Contact: Libby Shaw, Phone: (617) 253-5045 E-mail: elshaw@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Flourescence Spectrometer
Contact: Tim McClure   Phone: (617) 258-6470   E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Nanostructured Materials Lab

Four-Point Probe
Contact: Tim McClure   Phone: (617) 258-6470  E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Nanostructured Materials Lab

Gaertner Scientific 3-Wavelength Variable Angle Ellipsometer
Ellipsometry is used to determine the thickness of thin films and to find the complex index of refraction (n & k) of materials, by analyzing the polarization of light reflected at an angle from a sample surface. CMSE's ellipsometer probes the sample with a single wavelength laser, with a wavelength choice of red (633 nm), blue (488 nm) or near-IR (830 nm). The analysis area is about 1 mm x 3 mm. The minimum measurable film thickness is a few Ångstroms with an accuracy of +/- 3 Å, and the maximum measurable thickness is about 10 µm.
Contact: Libby Shaw, Phone: (617) 253-5045 E-mail: elshaw@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Glovebox-Integrated Spincoate
Contact: Tim McClure  Phone: (617) 258-6470   E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Nanostructured Materials Lab

Harrick Scientific PDC-32G Plasma Cleaner
RF Plasma cleaner has a quartz sample chamber and two gas flow controller. Currently configured to flow oxygen and air. Applications include: contaminant removal, activation, prebond preparation, surface chemistry modification and polymeric grafting & coating.
Contact: Tim McClure    Phone: (617) 258-6470   E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

JEOL 2010 Advanced High Performance TEM
This instrument is an advanced, digitally controlled dedicated transmission electron microscope operating at 200KV with a lanthanum hexaboride cathode. It is capable of an ultimate point-to-point resolution of 0.19 nm, with the ability to image lattice fringes at 0.14 nm resolution.
Contact: Dr. Yong Zhang, Phone: (617) 253-5092 E-mail: yzhang05@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

JEOL 2010 FEG Analytical Electron Microscope
A multipurpose high resolution analytical electron microscope with high resolution image quality and high analytical performance, EDS X-ray analysis. The system is also equipped with a Gatan image filter (GIF) for EELS and energy filtered imaging, and a scanning image observation device (ASID), and 3 CCD cameras for various applications.
Contact: Dr. Yong Zhang, Phone: (617) 253-5092 E-mail: yzhang05@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

JEOL 2011 High Contrast Digital TEM
A high performance TEM with advanced features and functions. The electron gun allows high-brightness with filament-saving low emission current. Other features include friendly controls, automatic filament heating, high tilting 60 degree single tilting holder, cryo objective lens polepiece for characterizing soft materials, AMT digital imaging camera, and a transmission catholuminescence attachment.
Contact: Dr. Shiahn Chen, Phone: (617) 253-4622 E-mail: schen3j@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

JEOL 5910 General Purpose SEM
A general purpose digital SEM, with the following attributes: very easy to use, remotely accessible via the web, Bruker EDX system for elemental analysis and mapping, and NPGS system for electron beam lithography.
Contact: Patrick Boisvert, Phone: (617) 253-3317    Email: pboisver@mit.edu

Linkum Scientific FTIR 600 Freezing/Hot stage
Temperature controlled microscope stage that can be used on any of the lab's microscopes (Optical, FTIR, and Raman).   Temperature scanning as well as isothermal experiments can be performed. Capable of operating from (-170) °C to 600°C. This stage has a sealed sample chamber that allows a vacuum to be maintained around the sample or a particular gas can be flowed through the chamber.
Contact: Tim McClure   Phone: (617) 258-6470    E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

NVision 40 Cross Beam System
The NVision 40 CrossBeam® Focused Ion Beam (FIB) system can be used to conduct characterization, milling and deposition at the nano-scale. The NVision 40 consists of a high-resolution Zeiss Gemini® electron beam column coupled with a Zeiss Zeta Ga ion beam and gaseous injection system (GIS).  The secondary electron imaging has a resolution of 1.0nm at 15kV and 1.4nm at 1kV. The Ga ion beam has an energy range from 1 to 30 kV and a probe current from 1 pA to 45 nA, which can achieve a resolution of 4.0nm for both imaging and milling.  Currently, the GIS is configured with C and Pt depositions and complemented by an Omniprobe 300 to allow FIB lift-out for TEM sample preparation.
Contact: Dr. Shiahn Chen    Phone: (617) 253-4622    E-mail: schen3j@mit.edu

Panalytical Multipurpose Diffractometer
This diffractometer can be used to collect XRPD, GIXD, XRR, and residual stress data. Some texture analysis is also possible. Sample sizes may be as large as 60mm diameter by 3-12mm thick, though a more typical sample size is 10-20mm diameter. Data collection modes can be changed between high-speed high-resolution divergent beam diffraction and parallel beam diffraction. There are several accessories for this instrument, including an X'Celerator position sensitive detector, a furnace for in-situ high temperature measurements, a cryostat for in-situ low temperature measurements, a diffracted beam monochromator, and a 15-position automatic sample changer.
Contact: Dr. Charles Settens    Phone: (845) 430-2584    E-mail: settens@mit.edu
X-ray Lab

Perkin Elmer Lambda 1050 UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer
Used to measure the Transmittance, Reflection or absorbance of a sample. Measurement Range: 175nm to 3300nm. Integrating Sphere.
Contact: Tim McClure   Phone: (617) 258-6470    E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Physical Electronics Model 700 Scanning Auger Nanoprobe
A scanning Auger microscope can be thought of as a scanning electron microscope with a specialized electron energy analyzer attached. Auger electron spectroscopy permits elemental and sometimes chemical analysis with high depth resolution (about 3 nm), good elemental sensitivity (1.0 to 0.1 atomic percent) and high lateral resolution (minimum 11 nm). The spatial distribution of elements on a surface can be mapped. Changes in elemental composition with depth can be documented by recording surface composition while using an ion gun to gradually remove surface layers. The sample is analyzed in an ultra high vacuum chamber. CMSE's PHI Model 700 Nanoprobe has a field emission electron source for high lateral resolution; a floating voltage argon gun for depth profiling and sample neutralization; a portable transfer vessel so that processed samples can be loaded into the instrument without exposure to air; and a nitrogen-coolable impact fracture stage for in situ preparation of intergranular fracture surfaces for analysis.
Contact: Libby Shaw, Phone: (617) 253-5045 E-mail: elshaw@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Physical Electronics Versaprobe II X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, aka ESCA) permits elemental and chemical spectroscopic analysis of both conductive and insulating samples, with high depth resolution (10 nm or less), good elemental sensitivity (0.1 to 0.01 atomic percent), and lateral resolution down to 10 µm. Changes in elemental composition with depth (to a maximum depth of about 10 nm) can be documented nondestructively by recording surface composition while varying sample tilt relative to the analyzer (this technique is called angle-resolved depth profiling). Compositional changes with depth down to a few hundred nm can be observed by recording surface composition while using an ion gun to gradually remove surface layers. The spatial distribution of elements or chemistries on a surface can be mapped with a lateral resolution of down to ten microns. The sample is analyzed in an ultra high vacuum chamber.

CMSE's PHI Versaprobe II XPS has a C60 cluster-ion gun as well as a floating voltage argon single-ion gun for depth profiling. The cluster-ion gun permits depth profiling softer materials which would be too damaged by single-ion bombardment. Other features of this XPS are a portable transfer vessel so that processed samples can be loaded into the XPS without exposure to air; an in situ heat/cold stage (-120C to 500C); and X-ray induced secondary electron imaging (SXI), which aids significantly in setting up for small area analysis.
Contact: Libby Shaw, Phone: (617) 253-5045 E-mail: elshaw@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Quantum Design Inc. Magnetic Property Measurement Systems (MPMS3 SQUID-VSM)
This apparatus is capable of measuring magnetic moments in the range +/-2 emu to a resolution of 10-7 emu. Measurements may be obtained in the temperature range 1.8 to 1000 K with magnetic fields from -7 Tesla to +7 Tesla. The system is fully automated, accepting flexible user-programmed parameters that allow for unattended operation day and night.
Contact: Patrick Boisvert, Phone: (617) 253-3317 Email: pboisver@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation
The QCM-D is used to study molecular interactions and surface science.
Based on a vibrating quartz crystal sensor (an acoustic resonator). Measurements are made based on changes in vibration frequency in response to reactions that occur on the sensor surface. The measurements provide answers about mass and structural changes at the nanoscale level.

Common applications include measurements on proteins, polymers, surfactants and cells onto surfaces in liquid.

Measurement Cells available: Flow, Static, Window, Electrochemistry and Humidity.
Tim McClure, Phone: (617) 258-6470   E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Renishaw Invia Reflex Micro Raman
Microscope based raman system with three laser excitation and spectrometer with CCD detector. Motorized stage and software allows mapping or imaging. Temperature controlled microscope stage. Automated polarization. Open Sample compartment. Photoluminescence. Low wavenumber gratings.
Contact: Tim McClure    Phone: (617) 258-6470    E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Rigaku H3r Source/Bruker Nanostar Saxs System
This hybrid instrument is composed of a Bruker NanoStar system for Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) on top of a Rigaku H3R rotating anode generator. It features a two-dimensional CCD detector and a long X-ray beam path to measure X-rays that are only slightly scattered away from the incident beam as well as entire Debye rings. The current beam path length of 60.4 cm allows the resolution of crystallographic and structural features on a length scale from 1.8nm to 40nm.
Contact: Dr. Charles Settens   Phone: (845) 430-2584   E-mail: settens@mit.edu
X-ray

Rigaku Ru-300 Powder Diffractometer
The RU-300 features an 18kW X-ray source along with a diffracted beam monochromator for rapid, high-quality data collection from polycrystalline samples. Current configuration is a chromium anode, which is useful for reducing unwanted fluorescence from samples containing iron and cobalt. Samples must be mounted vertically and this instrument is configured for Bragg-Brentano parafocusing geometry.
Contact: Dr. Charles Settens    Phone: (845) 430-2584    E-mail: settens@mit.edu
X-ray

Rigaku Smartlab Multipurpose Diffractometer
This diffractometer features a 9kW rotating anode X-ray source, which produces a much higher intensity beam than sealed tube anodes. It is capable of performing most common XRD measurements as well as many uncommon ones, and can rapidly switch between various optical configurations including both Bragg-Brentano and Parallel-Beam geometries. It is suited for XRPD, XRR, GIXD, HRXRD, reciprocal space maps (RSMs), in-plane pole figures, and in-plane grazing incidence XRD scans. Accessories for this instrument include:

  • Incident-beam Ge (022) double bounce monochromator, diffracted-beam graphite monochromator
  • D/teX Ultra linear position sensitive detector
  • Furnace, capable of heating to 1400°C in air, inert gases, or vacuum
  • Capillary stage used to hold and spin capillaries of various diameters for data collection in transmission mode
  • Battery cell designed to charge and discharge Li-ion based battery materials in-situ
  • In-plane arm which allows the point detector to traverse more than a quarter hemisphere around the sample

Contact: Dr. Charles Settens   Phone: (845) 430-2584    E-mail: settens@mit.edu
X-ray

Scanned Probe Microscopes
Scanned probe microscopy (SPM) uses a tiny mechanical probe to record sample surface topography and explore forces between the probe tip and sample surface on a very fine spatial scale, tracking the surface with nanoNewtons of force or less. Vertical resolution is in the sub-nanometer range, and lateral resolution is typically in the nanometer range (limited by the probe radius). Magnetic and electrostatic domains, hydrophilic/hydrophobic regions, and other variations in surface property can be mapped along with surface topography. Electrical characterization and force characterization on the nanoscale can also be performed.

CMSE has two SPM controllers and three SPM microscopes which can be used together in various configuration.

  1. Veeco Metrology Nanoscope IV Scanned Probe Microscope Controller with Dimension 3100 SPM
    The Dimension 3100 SPM is a large stage microscope operable in many SPM modes, with a vacuum chuck allowing mounting of full wafers for analysis.  The Nanoscope IV Controller permits topographic imaging, phase contrast imaging, magnetic and electrostatic force imaging, and Kelvin force imaging. 
     
  2. Veeco Metrology Nanoscope V Scanned Probe Microscope Controller with Dimension 3100 SPM, Hybrid Scanner, and Electrical Characterization Application Modules
    The Dimension 3100 SPM is a large stage microscope operable in many SPM modes, with a vacuum chuck allowing mounting of full wafers for analysis.  The Nanoscope V Controller permits topographic imaging, phase contrast imaging, magnetic and electrostatic force imaging, and Kelvin force imaging.  It also can perform piezo force mapping and characterization of variations in conductance or capacitance through the sample to ground. 
     
  3. Veeco/Digital Instruments MultiMode SPM
    The MultiMode SPM is a small stage, high-resolution microscope with a vertical-engage D scanner, operable in many SPM modes, for use with either the Nanoscope IV or the Nanoscope V controller.  Closed fluid cell and heat stage accessories are available for the Multimode.

Contact: Libby Shaw    Phone: (617) 253-5045    E-mail: elshaw@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Solar Cell External Quantum Efficiency Measurement
Contact: Tim McClure   Phone: (617) 258-6470   E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Nanostructured Materials Lab

Specimen Preparation: Fischione 1010 Ion Mill
Contact: Dr. Yong Zhang,  Phone: (617) 253-5092  E-mail: yzhang05@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

Specimen Preparation: Fischione 170 Ultrasonic Cutter
Contact: Dr. Yong Zhang,  Phone: (617) 253-5092  E-mail: yzhang05@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

Specimen Preparation: Gatan Dual Ion Mil
Contact: Dr. Yong Zhang, Phone: (617) 253-5092 E-mail: yzhang05@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

Specimen Preparation: Precision Ion Polishing System (PIPS)
Contact: Dr. Yong Zhang, Phone: (617) 253-5092 E-mail: yzhang05@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

Specimen Preparation: EMS Q150T ES Coater
Contact: Dr. Yong Zhang, Phone: (617) 253-5092 E-mail: yzhang05@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab

Thermal Evaporator, Metal Deposition
Contact: Tim McClure   Phone: (617) 258-6470   E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Nanostructured Materials Lab

Thermal Evaporator, Organic Material Deposition
Contact: Tim McClure   Phone: (617) 258-6470   E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Nanostructured Materials Lab

Thermo Fisher Continuum Fourier Transform Infrared Microscope
This is an FTIR microscope that is attached to the FTIR6700 bench. An FTIR spectra can be collected from spot sizes down to 20um (Typical is 100um). Data can be collected in Transmission, Reflection, Emission or Attenuated Total Reflection mode. This microscope is capable of FTIR mapping and ATR mapping.
Contact: Tim McClure    Phone: (617) 258-6470    E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

Thermo Fisher FTIR6700 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer
This is an FTIR bench with available detectors, beam splitters and sources to allow data collection in the near, mid and far IR. Accessories are available that allow for Transmission, Reflection or Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) measurements.
Contact: Tim McClure    Phone: (617) 258-6470    E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Materials Analysis Lab

UV-Visible-NR Transmission/Reflectance Spectrophotometer
Contact: Tim McClure   Phone: (617) 258-6470   E-mail: mtim@mit.edu
Nanostructured Materials Lab

For Veeco microscopes, please see "Scanned Probe Microscopes" above.

Zeiss Merlin High-resolution SEM
Zeiss Merlin high-resolution scanning electron microscope is a versatile electron beam characterization tool for semiconductor research, life and material sciences. It is capable of high resolution secondary electron imaging with a resolution of 0.8 nm at 15KV and 1.4 nm at 1 kV with in-lens secondary electron detector. It is also equipped with a retractable 4 Quads and an in-lens energy selective backscatter detectors for back-scattered electron imaging, an unique charge compensation system for imaging of non-conductive materials, and a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector for studying of electron-transparent thin film samples. A software to reconstruct 3D surface topography is also available. Accessories include an EDS for X-ray microanalysis and elemental mapping and an EBSD for crystallographic texture study.
Contact: Patrick Boisvert    Phone: (617) 253-3317    Email: pboisver@mit.edu
Electronic Microscopy Lab